Cultural Information Behavior
A Gardener’s Experience of Document Work at a Historic Landscape Site
Tim Gorichanaz
Drexel University, United States of America
Summary
Research in document work has tended to take a sociocultural perspective. Recent interest in document experience invites the consideration of document work from the perspective of an individual’s lived experience. This paper reports on a holistic, single-case study of how the head gardener at Shofuso Japanese House and Garden, a historic landscape site in Philadelphia, experiences the document work involved in developing a comprehensive garden plan. A hermeneutic analysis of the data reveals how the underlying foundational values of authenticity, education and reducing ambiguity support the process of document work in this case, which involves summoning diverse knowledge, channeling the master and stepping back. This process is punctuated by organizational and historical challenges. These findings suggest that the theoretical framework of foundation–process–challenges may be used to study the lived experience of document work in other cases. Further ramifications are discussed for practice in gardening and historical document work.

“Searching for Inspiration”: User Needs and Search Architecture in Europeana Collections
Timothy David Hill, Valentine Charles, Antoine Isaac, Juliane Stiller
Europeana Foundation, United Kingdom
Summary
Drawing upon research and current development work at Europeana, this paper discusses search functionality in the Cultural Heritage sector, focusing in particular on the question of ‘inspiration-oriented’ search, in which users seek out previously-unknown items to serve as creative stimulus. Inspiration-oriented search is identified as a variant of the more widely-studied problem of serendipitous retrieval, and defined as an information-seeking behavior in which users consciously search for items that are related to known items in ways that are recognizable once seen, but that are nevertheless unpredictable at search-time. Various strategies for the maximization of both the recognizability and unpredictability of related items are then described, including user-interface and user-experience changes and the reconceptualization of datastores as knowledge graphs. Directions for further research are then outlined – including, most importantly, possible metrics for inspiration-oriented search and their potential for use in machine-learning ranking frameworks.

Music Subject Classification Based on Lyrics and User Interpretations
Kahyun Choi1, Jin Ha Lee2, Xiao Hu3, J. Stephen Downie1
1University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; 2University of Washington; 3University of Hong Kong
Summary
That music seekers consider song subject metadata to be helpful in their searching/browsing experience has been noted in prior published research. In an effort to develop a subject-based tagging system, we explored the creation of automatically generated song subject classifications. Our classifications were derived from two different sources of song-related text: 1) lyrics; and, 2) user interpretations of lyrics collected from songmeanings.com. While both sources contain subject-related information, we found that user-generated interpretations always outperformed lyrics in terms of classification accuracy. This suggests that user interpretations are more useful in the subject classification task than lyrics because the semantically ambiguous poetic nature of lyrics tend to confuse classifiers. An examination of top-ranked terms and confusion matrices supported our contention that users’ interpretations work better for detecting the meaning of songs than what is conveyed through lyrics.

Data Reuse Behavior
Preparing a Workforce to Effectively Re-use Data
Ana Lucic, Catherine Blake
University of Illinois, United States of America
Summary
For centuries, library and information science professionals have been responsible for curating and preserving access to information resources. The last few decades have seen an unprecedented change in how new knowledge is created, disseminated and reused both within academe and industry, which provides new opportunities to intervene within the data lifecycle. This paper documents efforts to create a graduate educational program that produces alum who understand both the social and technical aspects of data analytics and who can effectively employ data to address questions in academe and industry. We share perspectives gained from initial interviews with project partners who have data needs, and report on how those needs directly informed curricula development of the Socio-technical Data Analytics (SODA) program at the School of Information Sciences at the University of Illinois. We also provide a formative student evaluation of the program that was conducted to identify aspects of the program that are successful, and those where further work is needed in order to help other schools who are developing similar programs that prepare a workforce who can effectively reuse data.

Toward a Conceptual Framework for Data Sharing Practices in Social Sciences: A Profile Approach
Wei Jeng, Daqing He, Jung Sun Oh
University of Pittsburgh, United States of America
Summary
This paper investigates the landscape of data-sharing practices in social sciences via the data sharing profile approach. Guided by two pre-existing conceptual frameworks, Knowledge Infrastructure (KI) and the Theory of Remote Scientific Collaboration (TORSC), we design and test a profile tool that consists of four overarching dimensions for capturing social scientists’ data practices, namely: 1) data characteristics, 2) perceived technical infrastructure, 3) perceived organizational context, and 4) individual characteristics.
To ensure that the instrument can be applied in real and practical terms, we conduct a case study by collecting responses from 93 early-career social scientists at two research universities in the Pittsburgh Area, U.S. The results suggest that there is no significant difference, in general, among scholars who prefer quantitative, mixed method, or qualitative research methods in terms of research activities and data-sharing practices. We also confirm that there is a gap between participants’ attitudes about research openness and their actual sharing behaviors, highlighting the need to study the “barrier” in addition to the “incentive” of research data sharing.

The Durability and Fragility of Knowledge Infrastructures: Lessons Learned from Astronomy
Christine L. Borgman1, Peter T. Darch2, Ashley E. Sands1, Milena S. Golshan1
1University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), United States of America; 2University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), United States of America
Summary
Infrastructures are not inherently durable or fragile, yet all are fragile over the long term. Durability requires care and maintenance of individual components and the links between them. Astronomy is an ideal domain in which to study knowledge infrastructures, due to its long history, transparency, and accumulation of observational data over a period of centuries. Research reported here draws upon a long-term study of scientific data practices to ask questions about the durability and fragility of infrastructures for data in astronomy. Methods include interviews, ethnography, and document analysis. As astronomy has become a digital science, the community has invested in shared instruments, data standards, digital archives, metadata and discovery services, and other relatively durable infrastructure components. Several features of data practices in astronomy contribute to the fragility of that infrastructure. These include different archiving practices between ground- and space-based missions, between sky surveys and investigator-led projects, and between observational and simulated data. Infrastructure components are tightly coupled, based on international agreements. However, the durability of these infrastructures relies on much invisible work – cataloging, metadata, and other labor conducted by information professionals. Continual investments in care and maintenance of the human and technical components of these infrastructures are necessary for sustainability.

Digital Data Curation
The Power of Imaginary Users: Designated Communities in the OAIS Reference Model
Rhiannon Stephanie Bettivia
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, United States of America
Summary
This paper explores the Designated Community term within the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model. Information practitioners, particularly those who work with varied populations and popular materials such as public- or state-sponsored libraries and museums, complain that this term is counter to their professional, ethical, and legal mandates to serve many types of user. Using interview data from digital preservation practitioners and scholars as well as interview data from OAIS authors, the author examines the meaning and history behind this term and what it prescribes for professional digital preservation practice. This work juxtaposes contentions of digital preservation practitioners with explanations provided by the authors of OAIS about the Designated Community term. The findings in this paper support the author’s contention that alternative digital preservation models and metrics are necessary within cultural heritage institutions, like libraries and museums, to meet the professional standards of practice in those areas and to ensure the inclusion of broad populations within the user bases of digital repositories.

Data Curation Profiling of Biocollections
Bradley Bishop, Carolyn Hank
University of Tennessee, United States of America
Summary
In the contexts of the data deluge and open data, scientists studying biodiversity benefit from online access to global datasets of existing vouchered biological and paleontological collections. Using biocollections collected over time across the world allows for the advancement of scientific knowledge concerning evolution in process as well as species poleward migrations, an indicator of climate change. This study’s purpose was to validate and expand the Data Curation Profiles (DCP) to digital biocollections and inform a DCP framework for worldwide biota. Ten biocollection producers, curating various types of specimens affiliated with the project building the United States’ national biodiversity infrastructure, were interviewed using the DCP questionnaire. Results indicate there is extreme diversity in the curation of biocollections and additional DCP questions should be added to reflect the complicated approaches to biological data curation. Although discipline specific metadata creation tools, standards, and practices enable long-term sustainability of the U.S. digitization effort, some scientists would benefit from further clarification and guidance on the information needs of consumers beyond designated communities of expert users, and the long-term preservation of biocollections.

Software Citation, Reuse and Metadata Considerations: An Exploratory Study Examining LAMMPS
Kai Li, Jane Greenberg, Xia Lin
Drexel University, United States of America
Summary
Scientific software is as important to scientific studies as raw data. Yet, attention to this genre of research data is limited in studies on data reuse, citation, and metadata standards. This paper presents results from an exploratory study that examined how scientific software’s reuse information is presented in the current citation practice and natural language descriptions in research papers. We selected LAMMPS, popular simulation software used in material science, for this study. Both descriptive metadata elements and the types of reuse are examined from a sample of 400 research papers. The results indicate that both descriptive metadata elements and reuse types about LAMMPS are presented in incomplete and inconsistent ways, and this interferes with the values of scientific software, as a type of research data. Our findings necessitate future studies on the metadata standards to facilitate the identification of information related with scientific software reuse.

Experiencing Political Information
A Study of the Informational Properties of the ISIS’s Content
Waseem Afzal
Charles Sturt University, Australia
Summary
Use of information networks by extremist groups to advance their totalitarian objectives is becoming a serious concern for global peace. The use of information networks is just one dimension; the other dimension and potentially more concerning is the production of sophisticated information content to influence public perception. One such group—the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS)— utilizing the affordances of information networks coupled with the sophisticated information content has been able to recruit a large number of foreign fighters from Western countries and hence is posing a threat to the national security of various nations. This research study analyses the content produced by the ISIS with an objective to identify (1) informational properties of and (2) information strategies used in their content. Initial findings suggest that ISIS’s content is rich in information with affective, theological, political, and historical connotations. Furthermore, their content is designed with an objective to give highly positively and/or negatively skewed information.

Enhancing Agency Through Information: A Phenomenographic Exploration of Young People’s Political Information Experiences
Lauren Smith
University of Strathclyde, United Kingdom
Summary
Introduction. This paper reports the findings of research into young people’s experiences of political information. The aim was to use phenomenography to identify variations in experiences of political information. The research explores how young people use information and technology to mediate political information to develop knowledge to become informed citizens. It focuses on how processes of discovery, production, retrieval, manipulation, dissemination, use, and evaluation of information are utilised in different ways by young people through a range of information behaviour techniques.
Method. 23 interviews and 3 focus groups were conducted with pupils aged 14-15 at a secondary school in England. The interviews and focus groups were recorded and transcripts and notes taken during the data collection sessions formed the data for analysis.
Analysis. Phenomenographic analysis was carried out, utilising manual coding and NVivo software.
Results. A phenomenographic outcome space represents the six qualitatively different ways in which the participants experienced political information, and identifies a range of political information sources, including social media and online news sources, which inform young people’s political knowledge and attitudes.
Conclusion. The outcome space illustrates the differences in ways young people experience political information and suggests potential for development to more complex ways of understanding the information they encounter. This represents a contribution to understanding the variation in information experiences and is of theoretical and practical value.

The Public Will vs. the Public Trust: Early American Radio as a Public Information Resource
Stacy Suzanne Wykle
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States of America
Summary
That radio broadcasting can be a form of scientific information transmission or a means of education and enlightenment of the public is somewhat of a foreign idea to the contemporary observer. Over the nearly full century that has transpired since the first public broadcasts aired in the US, radio programming has become a staunchly commercial enterprise directed by advertising and revenue rather than by any vision regarding the spread of knowledge for the benefit of humanity or the ideal of creating an “information society.” During the 1920s, in particular, radio broadcasts remained relatively uncensored because initial federal regulatory efforts were aimed at protecting the “public trust, convenience, and necessity” rather than overseeing content. Given this new public territory a range of colorful individuals—from outright vaudeville hucksters to earnest practitioners of the craft—contracted with stations to broadcast news and information, sell tools and medical devices, and provide personal consultation to listeners. In the 1920s and 1930s, therefore, astrology, in particular, became a significant factor in many Federal Communications Commission (FCC) license renewal hearings, due to two main perceptions: (1) that because fortune telling broadcasts primarily contained information meant for specific individuals who wrote to broadcasters with personal questions, they constituted “point to point transmission” of information and, therefore, did not serve the public interest at large; and (2) since such programs were nearly always related to the marketing of some product, such broadcasts were seen as nothing more than empty, manipulative ruses devised primarily for financial gain on the part of the broadcaster. Overall, however, the American audience for the earliest radio stations demonstrated themselves as ready to engage with the new medium as a means of information gathering, and, simultaneously, radio broadcasts were seen as a means of educating listeners. Although this topic has not received much attention by the information science community to date, it is an important piece of the public-information seeking landscape from a socio-technical perspective because early radio stations relied upon the pre-existing telephone infrastructure already in place in the US. An understanding of the use and early American radio as an information resource sheds light on the complex, persistent, and residual social and legal issues with which, for example, internet providers and users of the present day are contending.

Health Information Behavior
Information in Crisis: Health & Technology-related Information Behaviors of Parents in Emergency Departments
Lisa M. Given1, Rebekah Willson1, Lauren Albrecht2, Shannon D. Scott3
1School of Information Studies & Research Institute for Professional Practice, Learning and Education, Charles Sturt University, Australia; 2Department of Pediatrics and Faculty of Nursing, University of Alberta; 3Faculty of Nursing, University of Alberta
Summary
This research examined the information behavior of parents (including legal guardians) during an emergent health situation with a child. Although many studies examine health-related information behaviors, very few explore health consumers’ information practices during moments of health crisis. This study explored parents’ information needs, source use, and source preferences during a visit to the emergency department. An online questionnaire was administered using iPads given to 897 parents with children at one of 32 participating general emergency departments (ED) across Canada. Before taking their child to the ED, only 38.8% (n=348) of parents looked for information; those who did search looked most frequently for information about specific symptoms or severity of illness. Prior to visiting the ED the sources most frequently accessed were the internet and direct contact with healthcare professionals. At the emergency department, parents’ information needs centred on immediate concerns, including explanations of their child’s illness, treatments, and care instructions. Household income, education level, and parents’ age were factors that affected information seeking in emergent health situations. Overwhelmingly, speaking to a healthcare professional in person is the typical and preferred way to obtain health information when facing a health crisis involving a child. The results have implications for how and when healthcare information is shared; the findings add to the limited research on parents’ information behavior, particularly their roles as information proxies for their children.

Managing Personal Information Over the Long-term, Or Not? Experiences by Type 1 Diabetes Patients
Si Sun, Nicholas J. Belkin
Rutgers University, United States of America
Summary
The management of chronic conditions is often accompanied with the long-term management of health information. By examining how patients manage their health information over time, we can develop guidelines and design technologies to support this patient work, and also contribute the patients’ perspective to the existing literature on personal information management. This study explored the long-term personal information management (LTPIM) behaviors of people living with chronic conditions. We conducted semi-structured interviews and photo-documentation with 23 experienced type 1 diabetes patients. This mixed methods approach helped us identify five LTPIM styles, including designer, achiever, gatekeeper, curator and monitor. Those LTPIM styles differ in the information tools people used, the intensity of long-term information management behaviors, and their motivators. The nuances in those LTPIM styles are unique to the context of chronic conditions, but the categorization of those LTPIM styles can potentially be transferable to LTPIM in non-health contexts. Our results support previous literature on the major differences between LTPIM and personal information management in general. Further, we point to issues in current technologies used by patients for LTPIM, indicating a space for improvement.

Impact of Patient-provider Communication on Online Health Information Behaviors in Chronic Illness
Kaitlin Costello
Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, United States of America
Summary
This article analyzes the role that patient-provider communication has in shaping online health information seeking in patients diagnosed with chronic kidney disease [CKD]. Twelve participants, all diagnosed with CKD, were each interviewed twice for a total of 24 interviews; the posts they made to three different online support groups were also harvested. Data were collected and analyzed using grounded theory methods. There are multiple factors related to patient-provider communication that influence online health information seeking, including dismissive responses from providers, the type of an information need, time pressure, information overload, the healthcare system, and the desire to verify or crosscheck information by consulting multiple sources. These results highlight the importance of effective communication between people diagnosed with CKD and their healthcare providers, as these interactions impact online health information behavior. In particular, providers should foster an open attitude towards online health information seeking; they should also encourage patients to verify information found online.

Information and Scholarly Association
Needs Assessment of ASIS&T Publications: Bridging Information Research and Practice
Rong Tang1, Lorri Mon2, Jamshid Beheshti3, Yuelin Li4, Danielle Pollock5, Chaoqun Ni6, Samuel Chu7, Lu Xiao8, Julia Caffrey6, Steven Gentry6
1Simmons College, United States of America; 2Florida State University; 3McGill University, Montreal, CDN; 4Nankai University; 5University of Tennessee; 6Simmons College; 7University of Hong Kong; 8Syracuse University
Summary
This study reports the results of a 2016 online survey on perceptions and uses of ASIS&T publications. The 190 survey respondents represented 26 countries and 5 continents, with 77% of participants coming from academia rather than practitioners. Among the emerging themes were calls for a wider scope of research from information science to be reflected in the publications (including JASIS&T and the ASIS&T Proceedings), and ongoing challenges in the role of the Bulletin as a bridge between research and practice. The study provides insights into the scholarly publishing practices of the ASIS&T community and highlights key issues for the future direction of ASIS&T’s scholarly communication.

How Can Professional Associations Continue to Stay Relevant? Knowledge Management to the Rescue
Naresh Kumar Agarwal1, Md Anwarul Islam2
1Simmons College, United States of America; 2Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Japan
Summary
Professional associations across various fields have largely been struggling to stay relevant. Many have been watching a steady decline in membership numbers over the years. In many cases, members who join do not renew their membership. Existing members complain about the association not giving enough value for their membership dues. While the association does all the right things that it has been doing for the years since its existence, there is often a gap in what a changing membership base or potential audience for membership demands and what the association is able to deliver. In such a scenario, what must associations do to change the tide, to continue to stay relevant, to stem the decline, and to attract new members, and retain the ones they have? Using literature from knowledge management (KM), especially Agarwal & Marouf (2014)’s KM adoption framework, Nonaka & Takeuchi (1995)’s SECI model, and Agarwal & Islam (2014)’s KM Tools framework, and a study of the websites of professional associations in library and information science, this paper proposes a thriving KM strategy as a way for professional associations to not just survive, but to thrive. The ideas presented would be relevant to the leadership of professional associations.

Enhancing Lives through Information and Technology: Watson Davis’ Project for Information Organisation and Dissemination
Luciana Corts Mendes
University of São Paulo, Brazil
Summary
This paper gives a summary of the activities of Watson Davis (1896–1967) during the first half of the 20th century in the area of information organisation and dissemination. Starting from Davis’s views on the purpose of information, the paper subsequently describes his projects for the establishment of “one big library”, the Auxiliary Publication Service, “one big journal”, and the “world brain”. Considering Davis as a member of the Special Libraries and Documentation Movement, his connections with its other members are explored. Subsequently, Davis’s ideas are analysed and his legacy to Information Science investigated. The paper argues that Davis is an important link between Information Science and its predecessor Documentation, and therefore that he deserves to be subject of deeper research.

Information Practices in Communities
Intellectual Capital in Churches: Matching Solution Complexity with Problem Complexity
Darin S Freeburg
University of South Carolina, United States of America
Summary
The problems organizations face have varying degrees of complexity. What is not often understood, however, is that the knowledge needed to solve these problems also varies in complexity, and should match the complexity of the problem itself. The current study provides grounded theory for how leaders in churches should approach problems relating to Intellectual Capital (IC) assets. These intangible assets are crucial to the ability of churches to create value that enriches the lives of individuals in their communities. In two, 90-minute focus groups, the leadership team of a United Methodist Church in South Carolina, USA was asked about their IC and their past, present, and future solutions to increasing IC value. Qualitative coding of these transcripts found that leadership often provided knowledge-based solutions that did not match the assumed complexity of the IC problem. This caused numerous failures in the maintenance of IC. It is suggested that church leadership view all problems as knowledge problems to uncover these hidden assumptions of complexity, and use these assumptions to seek out knowledge-based solutions that match that complexity. These findings can be extended to non-religious contexts.

Values, Ethics and Participatory Policymaking in Online Communities
Alissa Centivany
University of Michigan; University of Toronto, Canada
Summary
Drawing upon principles and lessons of technology law and policy, value-centered design, anticipatory design ethics, and information policy literatures this research seeks to contribute to understandings of the ways in which platform design, practice, and policymaking intersect on the social media site Reddit. This research explores how Reddit’s users, moderators, and administrators surface values (like free speech, privacy, dignity, and autonomy), hint at ethical principles (what content, speech, behavior ought to be restricted and under what conditions), through a continuous process of (re)negotiating expectations and norms around values, ethics, and power on the site. Central to this research are questions such as: Who or what influences and/or determines social practice on Reddit? Who participates in decision-making and using what processes and mechanisms? Where do controversies arise and how are they resolved? Generating findings from a particular controversy surrounding the subreddit /r/jailbait, the author illustrates the complexities inherent in these questions and suggests that a participatory policymaking approach might contribute to future research and practice in this area.

The Onion Routing: Understanding a Privacy Enhancing Technology Community
Hsiao-Ying Huang, Masooda Bashir
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States of America
Summary
Internet technologies have made mass surveillance prevalent and much easier to carry out, while personal privacy is more difficult to protect. The ubiquitous data process has raised public awareness about the infringement of information privacy. To protect users’ information privacy, several entities have developed privacy enhancing technologies (PETs). One of the most well-known PETs is the Onion Router (Tor) network, which provides users with online anonymity. The Tor network is supported by a group of volunteers who contribute their resources to sustain the availability and quality of the service. However, Tor Volunteers may find themselves in a tough spot at times because Tor network is often monitored by law enforcement, which makes this PET community different from any other open-source initiatives. To explore this volunteer community’s motivation for providing the services despite the risks we conducted an online survey. Our study results reveal that one of the main motivations for these volunteers is to advocate and provide privacy for online users. In addition, Tor-relay operators report on their views about anonymous networks, the challenges they face, and how their belief in providing an opportunity for everyone to access information without interference or censorship is a key component of their volunteer participation.

Learning and Information
DocMatrix: Self-Teaching from Multiple Sources
Elena L. Glassman1, Daniel M. Russell2
1MIT, United States of America; 2Google
Summary
Learners have a wealth of online resources to help them teach themselves new knowledge. However, not all resources are of equal quality or appropriateness for a learner, given the particular set of prior knowledge they bring to the learning task. Without a teacher, finding appropriate sources that shed light on a topic, collectively or individually, is critical. We present DocMatrix, an interface for viewing multiple documents in parallel, with three key features: a grid of document viewers, a common term sidebar, and enhanced tables of contents. It is designed to let an interested learner view, filter, highlight, and search many documents on a topic simultaneously. We implemented the DocMatrix interface for Google Books, and ran a user study of the prototype. The results of this study indicate DocMatrix allowed users to find, read, and synthesize more information than a traditional single-book interface.

Three Types of Affect Tags for Art Images
Irene Lopatovska
Pratt Institute, United States of America
Summary
Art images are characterized by affective properties that are rarely captured by current classification practices. We conducted a study to test three methods for developing affect descriptors for art images. The first method relied on affect tags derived from analysis of an image’s subject matter and colors. The second method involved affect tags derived from analysis of a viewer’s facial expressions of emotions associated with each image. The third method relied on affect tags assigned to an image by viewers. The strengths, limitations, and potential of each affect tagging method for art images are discussed.

Evaluating the Credibility of English Web Sources as a Foreign-Language Searcher
Alyson Leigh Young, Anita Komlodi, Gyongyi Rozsa, Peng Chu
UMBC, United States of America
Summary
In this paper, we present preliminary findings from an exploratory mixed-methods study of foreign-language searchers’ credibility assessment of web documents when searching in English. Findings highlight a set of criteria used by these searchers to assess the credibility and accuracy of English web sources, the most frequent of which relates to source reputation. Foreign language searchers are more likely to trust an English language source if it is familiar or if it is the official source of information. Design aesthetics and functionality also have an impact on credibility. Findings have implications for the design of online sources that better support credibility assessments of foreign-language searchers.

New Data Analytics Methods
Document Representation Methods for Clustering Bilingual Documents
Shutian Ma1, Chengzhi Zhang1,2, Daqing He3
1Nanjing University of Science and Technology, China, People’s Republic of; 2Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Data Engineering and Knowledge Service (Nanjing University), Nanjing, 210094, China; 3School of Information Sciences & Intelligent System Program, University of Pittsburgh
Summary
Globalization places people in a multilingual environment. There is a growing number of users to access and share information in several languages for public or private purpose. In order to deliver relevant information in different languages, efficient multilingual documents management is worthy of study. Generally, classification and clustering are two typical methods for documents management. However, lack of training data and high efforts for corpus annotation will increase the cost for classifying multilingual documents which needs to bridge language gaps as well. Clustering is more suitable to implement in such practical applications. There are two main factors involved in documents clustering, document representation method and clustering algorithm. In this paper, we focus on document representation method and demonstrate that the choice of representation methods has impacts on quality of clustering results. In our experiment, we use parallel corpora (English-Chinese documents on topic of technology information) and comparable corpora (English and Chinese documents on topics of mobile technology and wind energy) as dataset. We compare four different types of document representation methods: Vector Space Model, Latent Semantic Indexing, Latent Dirichlet Allocation and Doc2Vec. Experimental results show that, accuracy of Vector Space Model were not competitive with other methods in all clustering tasks. Latent Semantic Indexing is overly sensitive to corpora itself, for it behaved differently when clustering two different topics of comparable corpora. Latent Dirichlet Allocation behaves best when clustering documents in small size of comparable corpora while Doc2Vec behaves best for large documents set of parallel corpora. Accordingly, characteristics of corpora should be under considerations for rational utilization of document representation methods to have better performance.

Pixel Efficiency Analysis: A Quantitative Web Analytics Approach
Alex Brown1, Binky Lush1, Bernard J. Jansen2
1The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, United States of America; 2Qatar Computing Research Institute, Doha, Qatar
Summary
We present a quantitative web analytics approach tailored towards academic libraries. We introduce the construct of pixel efficiency analysis and the metrics of pixel efficiency value and conversion efficiency value for quantitatively evaluating website changes. Pixel efficiency analysis is the practice of relating screen real estate measured in pixels to the achievement of organizational goals and key performance indicators as indicated by quantifiable user behavioral interactions on a webpage. The concepts and measures are employed through a case study at a major academic library focusing on four major webpages. The first level of analysis incorporates pixel efficiency analysis within an overarching web analytics investigation to identify key areas of improvement on the selected pages. The second level of analysis improves the identified weaknesses through A/B testing and highlights the usefulness of pixel efficiency analysis. Lastly, the third level of analysis employs the usage of the pixel efficiency value to elicit the added worth that potential website changes possess.

Cardinal: Novel Software for Studying File Management Behavior
Jesse David Dinneen1, Fabian Odoni2, Ilja Frissen1, Charles-Antoine Julien1
1McGill University, Canada; 2University of Applied Sciences HTW Chur, Switzerland
Summary
In this paper we describe the design and trial use of Cardinal, novel software that overcomes the limitations of existing research tools used in personal information management (PIM) studies focusing on file management (FM) behavior. Cardinal facilitates large-scale collection of FM behavior data along an extensive list of file system properties and additional relevant dimensions (e.g., demographic, software and hardware, etc). It enables anonymous, remote, and asynchronous participation across the 3 major operating systems, uses a simple interface, and provides value to participants by presenting a summary of their file and folder collections. In a 15-day trial implementation, Cardinal examined over 2.3 million files across 46 unsupervised participants. To test its adaptability we extended it to also collect psychological questionnaire responses and technological data from each participant. Participation sessions took an average of just over 10 minutes to complete, and participants reported positive impressions of their interactions. Following the pilot, we revised Cardinal to further decrease participation time and improve the user interface. Our tests suggest that Cardinal is a viable tool for FM research, and so we have made its source freely available to the PIM community.

New Takes on Information Behavior
Collectivist Information Behavior: Mentoring Circles as Sites for Knowledge Creation
Lisa M. Given, Wade B. Kelly
School of Information Studies & Research Institute for Professional Practice, Learning and Education, Charles Sturt University
Summary
Information behavior research has typically explored individual-level practices, even within studies of groups and group activities. Although collaborative information seeking has emerged in recent years to explore how people search for and share information, much of this research also focuses on individual-level experiences. Collectivist approaches to information behavior have been conducted in only a few studies in the discipline; however, collectivism offers a unique, holistic way to study information practices at within-group levels. Collectivism also accounts for the social, professional, and other contextual elements that shape group members’ information practices when pursuing common shared goals. This exploratory qualitative study – situated in a constructivist grounded theory methodology – investigated wine industry members’ experiences while engaging in peer mentoring circles. Designed as a professional development activity, the mentoring circles provided a platform for the development of long-term relationships among group members to foster information sharing and knowledge creation relevant to their work environments. The data point to a number of emergent themes concerning the conditions under which collectivist groups support members’ information needs. Findings point to the importance of group cohesion developed through shared (industry-based) language and knowledge and development of kin-like relationships to generate unique knowledge communities. Interdependency and reciprocity are shown to play key roles in motivating individual group members to share information with their peers.

Reviewing the Landscape of Research on the Threats to the Quality of User-Generated Content
Anjan Pal, Alton Y. K. Chua
Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Summary
The objective of the paper is to review and synthesize scholarly articles on the threats to the quality of user-generated content (UGC). In this paper, threats to the quality of UGC are defined as the perpetration of misleading information caused by the lack of editorial control. They include deception, disinformation, manipulation, misinformation and rumors whose veracity cannot be easily established. In particular, this paper identifies (a) the research objectives that had been investigated, (b) the research methods that had been employed, and (c) the disciplines that studied the threats to the quality of UGC. The dominant research objective includes investigating the dynamics of threats. The most widely adopted research methods include quantitative analysis of real world data. This area of research was found to attract both intra-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary scholarly attention. It even attracted attention from practitioners affiliated to non-academic institutes. Finally, this paper serves as a call for scholars to identify possible ways to mitigate the threats to the quality of UGC. It also encourages the use of qualitative approaches.

Evolution of Information Practices Over Time
Devon Greyson
University of British Columbia
Summary
Although researchers have grappled with conceptualizations of time in relation to information behavior, the effect of time on information practices has been a challenge to study and theorize. Longitudinal naturalistic methods provide an opportunity to observe information practices in context over time, but have infrequently been used in information research. This paper presents a qualitative ethnographic exploration of the changes over time in the information practices of a group of young parents in Canada, a population experiencing substantial life changes as young adults and new parents both. Using grounded theory, this analysis explores time-related processes in the lives of young parents and they ways these processes affect information practices such as seeking, sharing, and use of information. Three case examples illustrate the interplay over time of individual characteristics, setting, and events, and the impact on an individual’s information practices. Based on these findings, a theoretical model to inform future investigations of information practice evolution over time is presented.

Reading - New Methods, New Understanding
Toward an Understanding of Fiction and Information Behavior
Ramona Broussard, Philip Doty
The University of Texas at Austin, United States of America
Summary
The study of information science and technology has expanded over the years to include more kinds of people, more kinds of behavior, more methods, and a broader inclusion of fields. There is at least one area, however, where very few information studies scholars have tread: entertainment. Yet many works in other fields of study indicate that information studies should consider forms of entertainment such as fiction. This paper aims to consider how fiction is an informative genre, to discuss reasons why information studies has generally ignored the possibility of fiction as informative, and to identify potential research agendas for studying the reading of fiction as information interactions. We provide a summary of works from a variety of disciplines about fiction, discuss motivations for expanding (and not expanding) information studies, and explore some preliminary research that illustrates some ways fiction is important to information behavior.

Large-scale Log Analysis of Digital Reading
Pavel Braslavski1, Vivien Petras2, Valery Likhosherstov1, Maria Gäde2
1Ural Federal University, Russian Federation; 2Humboldt University Berlin, Germany
Summary
In this paper, we address daily reading practices of the general public in Russia analyzing 10 months of log data from the commercial ebook site Bookmate. We study different reading characteristics with ebooks, i.e. the reading volume and preferences, reading schedule, reading speed and reading style (including parallel reading patterns and book abandonment rates), with respect to reader gender, book length and genre of the book. We find that book genres impact certain reading behaviors, while gender differences or book length seem to play less of a role in ebook reading. Parallel book reading and book abandonment occur very frequently, possibly pointing towards changing reading behaviors in the ebook environment. The obtained insights demonstrate the high potential of log analysis for book reading studies.

Affective Taxomonies of the Reading Experience: Using User-Generated Reviews for Readers’ Advisory
Louise Spiteri1, Jen Pecoskie2
1Dalhousie University, Canada; 2Wayne State University. Detroit, MI
Summary
This paper examines affect in the reading experience to help both readers’ advisors and readers as they work to suggest books to readers and choose books for their individual context. Using Grounded Theory analysis of 536 user-generated reviews from 831 bibliographic records of a selection of fiction titles (n=22) in Canadian public libraries whose catalogues allow for the inclusion of user content were analyzed for affective content. The content of the reviews was coded into three categories, Emotions, Tones, and Associations and taxonomies were developed. Emotions are represented by 9 basic categories, and 44 unique emotions, Tones by 11 basic categories and 141 unique tones, and Associations by 7 basic categories and 31 unique associations. Affective access points can serve as an important addition to the bibliographic records for works of fiction and it is suggested that the derived taxonomies could be used as facets by which to narrow the results of a search for readers’ advisory efforts in public libraries.

Research Knowledge Structures and Practices
Changing Approaches to Research Synthesis Affect Social and Intellectual Structures of Science
Laura Sheble
Duke University, United States of America
Summary
Research synthesis methods, like collaboration and interdisciplinary research, comprise practices through which scholarly and scientific knowledge is integrated. The methods, which include meta-analysis and integrative or systematic review, are also arguably one of the most important contemporary methodological innovations in many research fields. As an innovative research practice, research synthesis, like many innovations, may be associated with complex or unexpected consequences as it diffuses through the research system. This study examines the extent to which the diffusion of research synthesis methods has affected levels of collaboration and research use through comparison with literature reviews in five fields. In Social Work and Information and Library Science, more authors contributed to research syntheses than reviews. There was no difference in number of authors in the biological sciences, but a greater number of authors contributed to both reviews and syntheses. Research syntheses were used more than reviews in Conservation Biology and Women’s Studies. In Social Work, research syntheses and reviews were cited at similar levels, but production of reviews has decreased as syntheses have increased, suggesting that research synthesis was becoming the predominant approach to review, traditional reviews remained valuable to researchers, though in an increasingly narrow range of contexts. In Information and Library Science, research reviews were used more than research syntheses, and trends suggest that research reviews are a relatively rare but highly prized – or at least frequently used – resource. No difference was found between use of research syntheses and reviews in Evolutionary Biology. Future research should investigate relationships between different approaches to knowledge integration in the context of science fields, which would lead to a better understanding of integration, or synthesis, in science overall; and could inform design of research policy programs.

Investigating Singapore’s Altmetric Landscape
Mojisola Erdt1, Ashley Sara Aw1, Htet Htet Aung1, Ehsan Mohammadi2, Yin-Leng Theng1
1Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore; 2Northwestern University, USA
Summary
Altmetrics is an emerging measure for academic impact and it is gaining in global importance. In this paper, we analyse the altmetric landscape of Singapore, a young nation with a fast growing international research sector. We aim to find out if the coverage of altmetrics across the different disciplines is increasing along with the fast increase in the amount of research publications in recent years. We also look into how altmetrics relate to traditional citation counts as a measure of research impact. From our results, we see that there is overall an 18% coverage of altmetrics of Singapore publications from 2009 to 2013. The number of publications with altmetrics has also been increasing over the years for most disciplines. Correlation results between citation counts and altmetrics show medium to low correlations with distinct differences amongst the various disciplines. A high coverage of altmetrics however does not seem to lead to larger correlations with citation counts. Singapore thus remains an intriguing case study to watch in the coming years.

An Investigation of Retracted Articles in the Biomedical Literature
John Budd1, Zach Coble2, Alison Abritis3
1University of Missouri, United States of America; 2New York University, United States of America; 3Retraction Watch, University States of America
Summary
A major challenge to formal scientific communication is the retraction of published works. This study includes a detailed analysis of retracted articles in biomedical literature, including categorization of the reasons for retraction. The examination covers the years 2010 through 2012. Analysis also includes citations to articles retracted between 2001 and 2005. The totality of the investigation is couched within the context of communication in the biomedical sciences and, to a lesser extent, of the formulation of theories of citation.

Searching for Relevance
The Impacts of Time Constraint on Users’ Search Strategy at Different Stages
Chang Liu, Yiming Wei
Peking University, China, People’s Republic of
Summary
This study examined the effects of time constraints on searchers’ information search strategies during search process, particularly at two search stages (first round and end point). A user experiment with forty participants was conducted, and each participant was asked to search with and without time constraint. The results showed that time constraint had significant effect on users’ first/mean dwell time on search engine result pages (SERPs) during the first query interval; however, time constraint did not influence their dwell time on SERPs or content pages when the whole session was considered, and it only had significant effect on the number of pages viewed per query. The findings indicated that users did employ different search strategies when searching with and without time constraint, and their search strategies changed over time within the search session. Generally, when there was no time constraint, users tended to employ economic-style search strategy at the beginning of search; but when given time constraint, they became more selective and cautious in examining the search results. The findings of this study have implications for search system design to assist searchers under time constraint and help them search more effectively and efficiently.

Using Affective Signals as Implicit Indicators of Information Relevance and Information Processing Strategies
Roberto I. González-Ibáñez1, Chirag Shah2
sup>1Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Chile; 2Rutgers University, USA
Summary
Search engines have become increasingly better at providing information to users. However, they still face major challenges, such as determining how searchers process information, how they make relevance judgments, and how their cognitive or emotional states affect their search progress. We address these challenges by exploring searchers’ affective dimension. In particular, we investigate how feelings, facial expressions, and electrodermal activity (EDA) could help to understand information relevance, search progress, and information processing strategies (IPS). To meet this goal, we designed an experiment in which 45 participants were exposed to affective stimuli prior to solving a fact-finding search task. Results indicate that initial affective dimensions are linked to IPSs, search progress, and task completion. However, further analyses suggest that affective-related features alone have limited utility in the binary classification of relevance using machine learning techniques.

Perception and Effectiveness of Search Advertising on Smartphones
Alexa Domachowski, Joachim Griesbaum, Ben Heuwing
Department of Information Science and Natural Language Processing, University of Hildesheim
Summary
This paper explores the perception and effectiveness of mobile search ads from the perspective of users. The study investigates the attention and interaction of users as well as their subjective estimation of paid listings within Google search results on smartphones. During the tests, each of the 20 users has to accomplish four different search tasks. Data collection methods combine eye-tracking with click-through analysis and interviews. Results indicate that there is no “ad blindness” on mobile search, but similar to desktop search, users also tend to avoid search advertising on smartphones. For mobile search, ads appear to cause higher usability costs than on desktop.

Socio-Technical Design
Methods for User-Centered Design and Evaluation of Text Analysis Tools in a Digital History Project
Ben Heuwing, Thomas Mandl, Christa Womser-Hacker
Department of Information Science and Natural Language Processing, University of Hildesheim
Summary
This paper reports on the user centered, formative evaluation of tools and the validation of models for the analysis of historical textbooks in the context of the digital history project Children and their World. The goal of the project is to create methods for computer-supported, interactive analysis that can be applied to a large corpus of historical textbooks on history and geography (~5000 volumes). A first version of a tool for text analysis has been created based on a user centered design process, including a contextual study on current work practices of historians, participative design workshops, and the prioritization of requirements with the project stakeholders. In addition, several generations of text models used in these tools have been iteratively evaluated by the historians in the project. In the context of a cooperative validation study, researchers have used these tools to examine existing hypotheses from the field. The method enables the validation of text models regarding established knowledge, provides additional insights into the requirements for tools and visualizations, and helps to strengthen the expert users’ trust in the tools. Based on the findings, this paper proposes four principles for the analysis of a corpus of historical texts. Moreover, the methods presented are discussed regarding the application of user centered design in the context of digital humanities projects.

How I Learned to Love Classical Studies: Information Representation Design of the Digital Latin Library
June Abbas, Stacey Renee Baker, Samuel Huskey, Chris Weaver
University of Oklahoma, United States of America
Summary
Application of the results of an information behavior study and domain analysis of Classics scholars of Latin, graduate students, and high school teachers are presented. The study was conducted to inform the design of the Digital Latin Library. Interviews and task demonstrations were conducted with 16 participants. An in depth domain analysis was also conducted to help researchers and system developers further understand the discipline of Classics and the unique system needs of this community. This paper outlines the detailed work analysis of one aspect of the Classical scholars’ scholarly work, development of a critical edition, and shows how we modeled this process within the system design. We also illustrate how the rich findings produced from information behavior studies and domain analysis can be used in information representation design of complex, discipline specific systems. Further, it shows how the two methodological approaches within LIS can be used together.

How Children Find Their Way: Access, Adaptability and Aesthetics in the Organization and Design of a New Children’s Library
Tonje Vold, Sunniva Evjen
Oslo and Akershus University of Applied Sciences, Norway
Summary
The organization and presentation of books and media is a central part of accessibility in libraries, and also a central part of the libraries’ presentation of itself. Traditionally, this is based on specific classification schemes, categorization, and alphabetization, performed by trained librarians. This paper investigates a different approach in a children’s library, where the children themselves have decided how books should be organized and displayed within the library, and try to identify what messages about childhood the organization, space and design convey. Our initial research suggests that the library’s organization promotes serendipity as guiding principle. Giving control to the users signals a desire to empower children, and creating a sense of ownership. The space itself signals fun, but also a homeliness that support multifaceted use.

Spanning Languages and Culture
An Informed Transition? International Medical Graduates Settling in the United States and Canada
Wajanat Rayes1, Aqueasha Martin-Hammond1, Anita Komlodi1, Nadia Caidi2, Nicole Sundin1
1University of Maryland Baltimore County, United States of America; 2University of Toronto,Canada
Summary
International medical graduates (IMGs) are medical professionals who have immigrated to the United States (US) or Canada (Ca) in hopes of integrating into the labor market. IMGs can be a very helpful resource supplying a diverse background and expertise to the medical system in the host country [Chen et al., 2010]. However, immigration and integration into a new country can be difficult processes due to differences in cultural norms, information sources, and information dissemination. In this study, we investigate the nature of information in the lived experiences of IMGs as they make a new life for themselves and their families in either the US or Canada. By so doing, we contribute to the limited body of research on this population by providing an informational perspective.

Plagiarism-free Inquiry Project-based Learning with UPCC Pedagogy
Celina Wing Yi Lee, Samuel Kai Wah Chu, Joanna Oi Yue Cheng
The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong S.A.R. (China)
Summary
(U)nderstanding plagiarism, learning about (P)araphrasing and related skills, generating proper (C)itations with an online citation tool and doing originality (C)heck with an online tool (UPCC) is a pedagogy developed by Chu and his colleagues (2014, 2015) to help students avoid plagiarism. The UPCC pedagogy incorporates the teaching of ethical use of information, an important facet of information literacy, into inquiry project-based learning (PjBL). This study, adopting a mixed-methods design, evaluates the effectiveness of UPCC by comparing two cohorts of junior secondary students’ plagiarism behavior in their PjBL projects with and without the implementation of the pedagogy. In addition, upon the completion of their projects, the 2015 cohort completed a survey that evaluates their knowledge of plagiarism, and assesses the extent to which they endorse the helpfulness of the UPCC in domains including Instructional Support; Understanding Plagiarism; Paraphrasing, synthesizing and summarizing; Generating Appropriate Citations; and Originality Self-Check. Students and teachers also participated in qualitative interviews to further elaborate on their perceptions of the UPCC pedagogy. A trend in reduced plagiarism behavior was observed after the implementation of UPCC, and students expressed a generally positive perception of UPCC. It was found that students who had better knowledge of plagiarism held a significantly more positive perception to the effectiveness of UPCC as an anti-plagiarism pedagogy than those who showed poorer understanding of plagiarism. This may indicate that further refinement of UPCC to cater for learner diversity is needed.

Research Outside Academia? An Analysis of Resources in Extra-academic Report Writing
Lisa Boerjesson
Uppsala University, Sweden
Summary
A significant part of all research takes place in extra-academic organizations. Practitioner researchers often present their results in publications different from those in academia, e.g. in reports, sometimes (and here) referred to as “gray literature”. Gray literature is increasingly available online. However, availability does not mean that reports are exploited to their full potential in research. Disciplines like archaeology have substantial problems with the scholarly communication and knowledge sharing between extra-academic and academic research. This paper approaches this problem from a report-user perspective. For the benefit of potential report users’ gray literature literacies, report-writing practices are analyzed by means of practice theory. Qualitative interviews with six practitioner researchers in Swedish archaeology firms make up the material. The analysis focuses on how report writers draw on regulative, institutional, and infrastructural resources in their practices. Based on the findings about the practices in which reports are written and become informative, the paper presents seven suggestions supporting report users’ potential to critically analyze and use report content. The results contribute to the information science field with insights into extra-academic information practices, and as input in a wider critical discussion of the information-related conditions for research outside academia.

Supporting Inclusion
“We’re Not Allowed”: Public Librarians’ Perspectives on Providing Health Information to Library Users Experiencing Homelessness
Rachel D. Williams
University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States of America
Summary
This paper describes the results of a qualitative study involving interviews with twelve public librarians about their experiences interacting with library users experiencing homelessness. The study examines the kinds of health information seeking experiences public librarians have, how public librarians respond to the health information needs of homeless library users, and the challenges public librarians undergo as they work to provide health and other information services to homeless individuals. The interviews show that public librarians have mixed experiences providing health information to homeless library users. Some viewed health information needs as a top-level concern, while others viewed health information as a lower priority need when compared to housing and food. Public librarians described several challenges when providing information services to homeless individuals related to professional roles, crisis management, the stigma of homelessness, privacy/confidentiality, and the library acting as a day shelter. Identifying the experiences and challenges of public librarians as they assist homeless library users is an initial step in creating more effective modes of providing services to this population.

Toward Accessible Course Content: Challenges and Opportunities for Libraries and Information Systems
Katrina Fenlon1, Laura C. Wood2, J. Stephen Downie1, Ruohua Han1, Alex O. Kinnaman1
1University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States of America; 2Tisch Library, Tufts University, United States of America
Summary
The population of students with disabilities in post-secondary institutions is significant and rising. The U.S. Department of Education reports that 11% of students, or more than two million students, in post-secondary education report having a disability. Providing accessible versions of materials for courses is a core service of disability-services offices in schools. Finding, obtaining, or generating accessible course content is a challenging process for disability-services providers at institutions ranging from community colleges to research universities, many of which receive hundreds of individualized requests for content each semester. Although a range of sources and services to assist in this process have emerged, they are insufficient and inefficient because they keep people from working together on a complex, shared problem. In the summer of 2015, we conducted a qualitative study of the challenges facing disability services providers in U.S. post-secondary institutions, in order to design and implement information systems that would enable large-scale sharing of locally improved, accessible course content with qualified students in the U.S. This paper reports on the subset of our findings that addresses challenges to providing, sharing, and reusing accessible digital content. Our findings suggest that there are substantial opportunities for the LIS and library communities to apply our expertise to this gap in information services for an expanding population of students.

Exploring Linguistic Diversity of MOOCs: Implications for International Development
Caroline Stratton1, Rob Grace2
1The University of Texas at Austin, United States of America; 2The Pennsylvania State University, United States of America
Summary
Recent practical initiatives and academic research have signaled optimism for the use of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) as an alternative model for education in the developing world. At the same time, anecdotal evidence and observation have pointed to a lack of courses offered in languages other than English as one potential challenge for global use of MOOCs. We present a first empirical attempt to characterize the linguistic diversity of MOOCs and understand the resulting implications for the use of MOOCs in international development. We find significant differences in quantities and types of MOOCs available in English and non-English languages. This finding indicates that MOOCs do not yet provide a broad array of educational opportunities for people without adequate English-language proficiency and therefore, MOOCs may have limited potential for use in international development outside English-speaking populations at present. In recognition of efforts to increase linguistic diversity of MOOC offerings, we review and describe two types of initiatives, those to translate existing MOOCs and those to create new MOOCs in non-English languages, initiatives we identify as scaling-up or scaling-down MOOCs respectively. To situate our findings in development discourse, we turn to Sen’s capability approach (1999) to consider implications for the use of MOOCs in socioeconomic development.

The Science of Games
Media Format Matters: Users’ Perceptions of Physical versus Digital Games
Jin Ha Lee, Dylan Holmes, Brooks Lobe
University of Washington Information School, United States of America
Summary
Despite the rapid shift in media distribution from physical to digital formats, few studies explore what this means to users with regards to perceived values, limitations, and experience with media. We investigate this problem, specifically within the context of video games, aiming to understand which formats game players prefer and for what reasons, and the implications for game content providers and digital libraries. The findings from a survey of 1,257 game players showed that more respondents preferred digital formats over physical formats. Advocates of digital games typically valued accessibility and convenience, longevity of games free of physical damage, less need for storage, and reduced cost. Advocates of physical games generally valued the ability to easily retrieve, share, and resell games, ownership and longevity of access to games, the paraphernalia and collectibles that came with physical games, and the aesthetic and tangible qualities of the physical object. We discuss the implications of these findings for content providers and libraries, with an emphasis on game preservation efforts.

Personality, Motivations, and Information Quality: A Comparative Study across Games for Human Computation
Ei Pa Pa Pe-Than, Dion Hoe-Lian Goh, Chei Sian Lee
Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Summary
The popularity of games has motivated their adoption for pursuits beyond entertainment. One of the emerging strategies is the Human Computation Game (HCG) which channels players’ time spent on games toward problem solving. Unlike entertainment-oriented games, players of HCGs contribute output as a byproduct of gameplay. As such, there are many factors such as personality, motivations, quality, as well as gameplay styles that may influence adoption of HCGs. In this paper, we investigate the relationships between personality traits and motivations, and the differences in perceived information quality across HCGs with collaborative and competitive gameplay styles. Using a within-subjects experimental design, 125 participants were recruited from two local universities. The findings demonstrate that the interaction between personality traits and gameplay styles influenced players’ satisfaction of the need for autonomy, competence and relatedness,. Further, perceived information quality was found to differ across HCG types. The findings provide design guidelines for HCGs and similar games to enhance players’ engagement and motivation.

Games for Crowdsourcing Mobile Content: An Analysis of Contribution Patterns
Dion Goh, Ei Pa Pa Pe-Than, Chei Sian Lee
Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Summary
Crowdsourcing of mobile content has become a major way of populating information-rich online environments. One approach to motivate participation is via games. That is, a crowdsourcing game is built upon the desire of individuals to be entertained while generating useful outputs as byproducts of gameplay. A gap in current research is that actual usage patterns of crowdsourcing games have not been investigated adequately. We address this gap by comparing content creation patterns in a game for crowdsourcing mobile content against a non-game version. Our analysis of 3024 contributions in both apps reveal 10 categories, divided into: (1) those that conform more to the notion of mobile content utilized to learn about a specific place or for navigational purposes; and (2) those that were about the content creator himself/herself, or in relation to other users or other non-playing individuals, with the location as a backdrop, similar to status updates in social media platforms like Twitter. We argue that both categories are potentially useful in that they meet different needs, and together could serve to recruit and sustain participation in the longer term. Further, the distribution of categories varied across the apps, indicating that the features afforded by games shape behavior differently from non-game-based approaches to crowdsourcing.

The Science of Queries
Exploring the Relationships Between Search Intentions and Query Reformulations
Nicholas J Belkin1, Eun Youp Rha1, Matthew Mitsui2, Chirag Shah1
1Rutgers University, School of Communication & Information, United States of America; 2Rutgers University, Department of Computer Science
Summary
We report on a study investigating the relationships among query reformulations and different search intentions during an information seeking session. 24 participants were each asked to search for information useful for two (of four) different journalism tasks; after completing each search, the search was replayed, and participants were asked to specify what they intended to accomplish in each query segment of the search session, and whether those intentions were satisfied. Logs of the searches were analyzed to extract the queries at the start and finish of each query segment, and query reformulations were classified. Results show that: participants regularly indicated a variety of different search intentions during the course of an information seeking session; there are some differences in reformulation types following different search intentions; there are some differences in reformulation types which follow satisfied and unsatisfied intentions; and, there are differences in the frequency of intentions following reformulations which themselves follow satisfied and unsatisfied intentions. Implications for system design are discussed.

The Exploration of Objective Task Difficulty and Domain Knowledge Effects on Users’ Query Formulation
Chang Liu1, Xiangmin Zhang2, Wei Huang1
1Peking University, China, People’s Republic of; 2Wayne State University
Summary
In this paper, we explore the effects of objective task difficulty and domain knowledge on users’ query formulations. The dataset from a user experiment was used in this research, which focused on the medical domain. The objective difficulty was measured by the precision level of search topics (as queries) in the search system, and searchers’ domain knowledge was assessed by a self-reported rating on the familiarity with MeSH terms that were related to the search topics in the study. We compared expert searchers’ and novice searchers’ query similarity and query features between easy and difficult tasks. The results showed that there was no significant difference between domain experts and novices in query similarity, but there existed an opposite pattern of task difficulty on query similarity for searchers with different domain knowledge levels. Domain expert searchers had more diverse vocabulary in difficult tasks than in easy tasks, whereas novice searchers had to rely heavily on task descriptions to formulate their queries. Task difficulty had also influenced searchers’ performance, especially the precision measure. Novice searchers’ recall was relatively low in both easy and difficult tasks. The findings in this study help us further understand users’ query formulation process, and have implication for the design of query suggestion functions in search systems.

What Makes a Query Temporally Sensitive?
Craig Willis, Garrick Sherman, Miles Efron
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States of America
Summary
This work examines factors that affect manual classifications of “temporally sensitive” information needs. We introduce the concepts of “temporal relevance” and “temporal topicality” to differentiate between different aspects of temporal retrieval research. We use qualitative and quantitative techniques to analyze 660 topics from the Text Retrieval Conference (TREC) previously used in the experimental evaluation of temporal retrieval models. We use regression analysis to model previous manual classifications. We identify factors and potential problems with previous classifications, proposing principles and guidelines for future work on the evaluation of temporal retrieval models.